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Wednesday, April 22, 2009

Karat penyebab Tetanus


Seringkali karat dituding sebagai penyebab tetanus. Penyakit ini menyerang otot dan menyebabkan kejang-kejang serta rahang terkunci. Pada banyak kasus, memang banyak orang yang menginjak paku berkarat kemudian menderita tetanus. Karena itulah karat dikaitkan dengan tetanus.


Sebenarnya bukan karatnya yang menyebabkan tetanus. Infeksi tetanus disebabkan oleh bakteri Clostridium tetani. Bakteri ini, hidup di lingkungan anaerob alias lingkungan yang minim atau justru tidak ada oksigen sama sekali. Luka yang dalam, sempit, dan tertutup seperti luka tertusuk paku cocok sebagai media berbiaknya bakteri ini.

Bakteri tetanus hidup pada lingkungan rumah yang kotor, bukan semata-mata pada karat saja. Paku berkarat, yang memang ditemukan pada lingkungan yang tidak terawat, hanya salah satu contoh saja. Apalagi benda berkarat permukaannya tidak rata, sehingga bakteri banyak terkumpul disana. Saat menempel pada benda-benda ini, bakteri sedang dalam fase endospore, yang mampu bertahan lama, sampai pada saatnya menemukan kondisi ideal untuk berbiak, seperti pada luka tertutup tadi.

Pada Perang Dunia II, banyak prajurit tewas karena tetanus. Lingkungan yang kotor dan luka-luka yang diderita prajurit menyebabkan penyakit ini menyebar luas. Namun saat ditemukan vaksin tetanus, jumlah penderita menurun dratis. Saat ini, tetanus tidak dipandang sebagai penyakit yang mematikan, karena dengan perawatan antibiotik yang tepat, penderita dapat sembuh.

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